The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, which has its seat in Arusha, Tanzania, began operating in 1995, pursuant to UN Security Council Resolution 955 of November 8, 1994, in the near-immediate aftermath of the Rwandan genocide in which hundreds of thousands of Rwandans lost their lives in massacres when the government incited the country’s majority ethnic group to attack the minority group.  (This conflict spilled over into the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where an estimated 5.4 million people have lost their lives because of the conflict since 1998.)

The ICTR’s jurisdiction is limited to acts of genocide and crimes against humanity (as defined in its Statute)  and violations of Article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of Additional Protocol II committed in Rwanda, or by Rwandan nationals in neighboring States, between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 1994.   Its Statute and Rules of Procedure and Evidence establish the substantive and procedural norms applicable to the Tribunal’s work.

The ICTR has tried 49 individuals, while another 26 are currently being tried and 2 await trial.  Eleven suspects remain at large. (See case list here and unofficial judgment summaries here.)

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